Here are the notes for today’s Webcast:



1: a preparation that is administered (as by injection) to stimulate the body’s immune response against a specific infectious agent or disease: such as

a: an antigenic preparation of a typically inactivated or attenuated (see attenuated sense 2) pathogenic agent (such as a bacterium or virus) or one of its components or products (such as a protein or toxin)

a trivalent influenza vaccine

oral polio vaccine

Many vaccines are made from the virus itself, either weakened or killed, which will induce antibodies to bind and kill a live virus. Measles vaccines are just that, weakened (or attenuated) measles viruses.—

Ann Finkbeiner et al.

… a tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine might be recommended for wound management in a pregnant woman if [greater than or equal to] 5 years have elapsed … .—

Mark Sawyer et al.

In addition the subunit used in a vaccine must be carefully chosen, because not all components of a pathogen represent beneficial immunological targets.—

Thomas J. Matthews and Dani P. Bolognesi

b: a preparation of genetic material (such as a strand of synthesized messenger RNA) that is used by the cells of the body to produce an antigenic substance (such as a fragment of virus spike protein)

… Moderna’s coronavirus vaccine … works by injecting a small piece of mRNA from the coronavirus that codes for the virus’ spike protein. … mRNA vaccine spurs the body to produce the spike protein internally. That, in turn, triggers an immune response.—

Susie Neilson et al.

The revolutionary messenger RNA vaccines that are now available have been over a decade in development. … Messenger RNA enters the cell cytoplasm and produces protein from the spike of the Covid-19 virus.—

Thomas F. Cozza

Viral vector vaccines, another recent type of vaccine, are similar to DNA and RNA vaccines, but the virus’s genetic information is housed in an attenuated virus (unrelated to the disease-causing virus) that helps to promote host cell fusion and entry.—

Priya Kaur

Note: Vaccines may contain adjuvants (such as aluminum hydroxide) designed to enhance the strength and duration of the body’s immune response.

2: a preparation or immunotherapy that is used to stimulate the body’s immune response against noninfectious substances, agents, or diseases

The U.S. Army is also testing a ricin vaccine and has reported success in mice.—

Sue Goetinck Ambrose

… many of the most promising new cancer vaccines use dendritic cells to train the immune system to recognize tumor cells.— Patrick Barry


vaccinevăk-sēn′, văk′sēn″


  1. A preparation of a weakened or killed pathogen, such as a bacterium or virus, or of a portion of the pathogen’s structure that upon administration to an individual stimulates antibody production or cellular immunity against the pathogen but is incapable of causing severe infection.
  2. A preparation from the cowpox virus that protects against smallpox when administered to an individual.
  3. A software program designed to detect and stop the progress of computer viruses.

How does better healthcare reduce population growth?

Lakshmi Ramachandran

Ph.D in English Literature, University of Madras (Graduated 1997)Author has 3.4K answers and 1.6M answer views1y

Better healthcare gives women better information and more control over their reproductive choices. Births will drop drastically when you give women this agency.

Good healthcare is also associated with freeing up people to make more independent choices. Both women and men will choose to break free of social shackles that persuade you to marry and have children. This is because good healthcare usually goes hand in hand with more productivity and greater prosperity. Freedom from poverty translates into a more educated and free thinking population.

Poor healthcare drastically affects people’s productivity. The reason is that there are many small ailments and conditions that can deteriorate into more serious matters if left untreated. If treated, people are quickly cured and can get back to their jobs and lives.

It’s all about agency and control over our lives. Nobody wants to have loads of children. Most people want to do other things with their life.

And now, a little desert from the CDC:

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